W3C Architecture Domain

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Core Drafts · Developer Discussion · Events/Pubs (translations) · Software · Test Suite · Bookmarks

The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the universal format for structured documents and data on the Web. XML in 10 points explains XML briefly. The base specifications are XML 1.0, W3C Recommendation Feb '98, and Namespaces, Jan '99. The XML Activity Statement explains the W3C's work on this topic in more detail. For related work, see:

Nearby: XML Protocol · XML Schema · XML Query · XLink, XPointer, XML Base · DOM · RDF · CSS XSL · XHTML · MathML · SMIL · SVG · XML Signature and Canonicalization

Working Drafts

Follow the links above for details about the drafts issued by the XML Query, XML Schema, and XML Linking WGs. The documents listed below are the working drafts issued by the XML Core working group.

XML Inclusions (XInclude) Last Call working draft issued 16 May 2001
XML Information Set Proposed Recommendation issued 10 August 2001
XML Fragment Interchange Candidate Recommendation as of 12 February 2001

Developer Discussion

If you've read the FAQ, but you want to get more involved, try one of these discussion forums:

USENET newsgroup for "The Extensible Markup Language (XML)" chartered 1998/07/15 (announcement on news.announce.newgroups via dejanews)
"XML-DEV is an informal unmoderated list to support those who are interested in the implementation and development of XML. ..."
Peter Murray-Rust, 25 Feb 1997

archive at xml.org, egroups archive (formerly mailto:xml-dev@ic.ac.uk, archived at http://www.lists.ic.ac.uk/hypermail/xml-dev/)

discussion of relative URI references in XML namespace delcarations. xml-uri archive
... and there are many more
see: Robin Cover's XML Mailing Lists, Discussion Groups, Newsgroups,
XML: Working Groups, SIGS, Design and Development Initiatives

Timeline: Events and Publications

Historical events in and around the W3C XML Activity include Recommendations:

... and conferences, workshops:

May 2000: WWW9: Amsterdam
March 2000 IETF 47: Adelaide, Australia, 26-31
Feb/Mar 2000: XTech 2000 in San Jose, California
Dec '99: XML 99 in Philadelphia (a GCA Conference)
Oct '99: XML One Europe, in London
Sep '99: XML World, in Chateau Laurier
Aug '99: XML Developers' Conference, in Montreal (a GCA Conference)
May '99: The Eighth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW8), in Toronto
Apr '99: XML Europe '99, Granada, Spain, by GCA
some presentation materials:
Apr '99: XML-DSig '99: The W3C Signed XML Workshop
Mar '99: XTech '99, San Jose, California
Dec '98: W3C Workshop: Query Languages
Nov '98: XML '98, Markup Technologies '98 conferences hosted by GCA in Chicago
program includes a W3C Standards Update plus sessions on CSS2, DOM, XLink, DCD, RDF, Namespaces, WIDL, PGML. VML, Web Graphics, Querying XML, XFDL
Aug '98: Metastructures 1998 & XML Developers' Conference hosted by the GCA
May '98: W3C Workshop: Shaping the Future of HTML
Apr '98: Seventh International World Wide Web Conference
Mar 1998: XML'98: The Conference
Dec '97: SGML/XML '97
Sep '97: SGML/XML Asia Pacific '97 conference hosted by the GCA in Sydney, Australia
Aug '97: XML Developers Day, Montreal, Canada, August 21, 1997
Mar 97: First XML Conference in San Diego, by the GCA
SGML 96 Conference in Boston


See also: W3C's translation policy and other W3C translations, translations of XML Base, XML Schema (Parts 0, 1, 2), Associating style sheets with XML documents, 1.0

Chinese (Simplified)
Chinese (Traditional)
Norwegian (Norvegian, Bokmål)

See http://croll.hotbox.ru/W3C/Consortium/Translation/russian.html for translations of other W3C specifications.


See http://www.sidar.org/traduc/traduc.htm for more Spanish translations.


Conformance Testing

The Extensible Markup Language (XML) Conformance Test Suites are primarily aimed at implementors of XML processors. Currently we have a conformance test suite for the XML 1.0 Second Edition, with over 2,000 test files, which you can download freely. Read more.

XML Software

A number of commercial vendors are preparing XML software tools. In addition, aided by XML's relative simplicity, many individuals and academic institutions are undertaking XML efforts. Leading examples of XML tools available in source form use include the following:

Apache XML Project
libxml and libxsl, the Gnome XML and XSLT toolkit
SAX: The Simple API for XML
David Megginson et. al., May 1998
XML parser in C, by James Clark, 1998, 1999
an XML developers' toolkit released 24 June 1998 from the Language Technology Group at the University of Edinburgh.
21 July 1999: version 1.1
XML well-formedness checker and validator
XML for Java - XML4J
from IBM AlphaWorks
4 Aug '99 Update: "XML4J Early Access release
Preliminary support for W3C XML Schema Language and access to the DTD via the DOM. "
13 May '99 Update: "New v2.0.9 contains bug fixes, DOM Implementation classes are no longer final, modified license, and multiple parser objects can be active at once. "
Nov '98: TreeDiff, DataCraft, PatML, BeanMaker, Bean Markup Language, TeXML, Dynamic XML for Java, XML Productivity Kit for Java, XML EditorMaker
Web Workshop - XML
Microsoft 's validating XML processor and XML DOM (level 1) plus various tools, samples, tutorials and online docs.
a non-validating XML processor written in Java
by Tim Bray, 5-January-1998
another non-validating XML processor written in Java
by James Clark, 1997, 1998
Python and XML Processing
preliminary XML parser, SAX interface, DOM support, etc.
(release 0.5.1 13-Apr-1999)
an XML parser written in Tcl by Steve Ball.
XML Testbed
by Steve Withall
Montreal Slides
a Java-based XML browser designed for the Chemical Markup Language, an XML application developed by Peter Murray-Rust, April 1997.
XPointer and XLink implementations, 17 Dec 1998 by Steven J. DeRose
Robin Cover's Public SGML/XML Software list

Note: This list is not intended to be an exhaustive list of XML software, but rather a list of software that we have evaluated and found useful to the developer community. If you want your software in this list,

Preference is given to Open Source software.

Bookmarks: Recommended Reading

xmlhack - developer news from the XML community
news, opinions, tips and issues concerning XML development. since 1999.
Robin Cover's bibliography and background information on SGML, HyTime, and DSSSL, since 1994; especially:

What's New in SGML/XML

XML.COM - The Web Distributed Data eXchange
Seybold and O'Reilly team up to keep you informed about XML
Jan. 19, 1999: XML Namespaces by Example by Tim Bray
Mar. 8, 2000: Namespace Myths Exploded by Ronald Bourret
Aug. 4, 2000 XML Tutorial 1: Well-Formed XML Documents by Bonnie SooHoo

ARGH! as of 4 Aug 2000, it was available at http://webreview.com/pub/2000/08/04/feature/index04.html It's really anti-social to move things without servicing the old address with a redirect. See: Cool URLs Don't Change.

by Peter Flynn et. al. (see also: translations)
XML Resources by James Clark
including a test suite, some software, etc.
Feb '99: note on XML Namespaces
SAX: The Simple API for XML
David Megginson et. al., May 1998
ISO WG8 Materials related to the SGML Revision
Charles F. Goldfarb
Project Editor, ISO 8879
Last revised December 10, 1997

Research Notebook

experimental: comments

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